Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

About Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery is an open access, companion assessed journal that includes all parts of vascular diseases, arterial, venous and lymphatic diseases and Endovascular surgeries standards and instruments in connection to human illness, conclusion and treatment. Clinical trials and research in illness model living beings are especially welcome.

This journal is isolated into the accompanying segments: Endovascular, Vascular, Catheter Extra cranial Carotid Artery Disease, Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Carotid Artery Revascularization, Thoracic Aorta and Aortic Arch, Carotid stenosis, Stent, Leg Ulcerations, Carotid Endarterectomy, Limb thrombosis.

Open access is an innovative publishing platform in which all articles published in this journal will be accessible online, to anyone, anywhere in the world, completely free of charge. Articles once submitted to the journal are peer-reviewed wisely. Once accepted, articles are then proof-read for publication.

The scholarly publishing journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality peer review process. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Pancreas or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors can track their progress through the system. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

Submit manuscript at http://www.editorialmanager.com/imedpubjournals/ or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at editor.ves@imedpub.org 

Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Arteries bring oxygen-rich blood from heart to the rest of the body and veins return oxygen-poor blood back to heart. When leg veins cannot pump enough blood back to heart, will have chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).

CVI is also sometimes called chronic venous disease, or CVD. We have three kinds of veins: superficial veins, which lie close to the skin, deep veins, which lie in groups of muscles and perforating veins, which connect the superficial to the deep veins. Deep veins lead to the vena cava, our body's largest vein, which runs directly to your heart.

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Varicose Veins

Arteries bring oxygen-rich blood from heart to the rest of the body and veins return oxygen-poor blood back to heart. Varicose veins are swollen veins that we can see through skin. They often look blue, bulging, and twisted. Left untreated, varicose veins may worsen over time.

Varicose veins can cause aching and feelings of fatigue as well as skin changes like rashes, redness, and sores. As many as 40 million Americans, most of them women, have varicose veins.

We have three kinds of veins in our legs; the superficial veins, which lie closest to our skin, the deep veins, which lie in groups of muscles and perforating veins, which connect the superficial veins to the deep veins. The deep veins lead to the vena cava, our body's largest vein, which runs directly to heart. Varicose veins occur in the superficial veins in our legs

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Moyamoya Disease

 Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. The name “moyamoya” means “puff of smoke” in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage.

There are several types of revascularization surgery that can restore blood flow to the brain by opening narrowed blood vessels or by bypassing blocked arteries. Children usually respond better to revascularization surgery than adults, but the majority of individuals have no further strokes or related problems after surgery. Without surgery, the majority of individuals with Moyamoya disease will experience mental decline and multiple strokes because of the progressive narrowing of arteries. Without treatment, Moyamoya disease can be fatal as the result of intracerebral hemorrhage. Bypassing the occlusive segments is the aim of most surgical therapy.

In adults external carotid artery to middle cerebral artery (ECA-MCA) anastomoses can be performed as the vessels are larger. One of the surgical option is superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis is the treatment of choice in paediatric patients as their vessels are too small to allow direct anastomosis

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Surgical Aneurysm Repair

In surgical aneurysm repair, vascular surgeon repairs or removes an aneurysm through an incision in skin. An aneurysm is an enlarged and weakened section of an artery. An aneurysm is a serious health concern, because as it increases in size, it can rupture. Besides rupturing, aneurysms carry another risk. Blood clots can form in an aneurysm and block blood flow to parts of body.

Fortunately, aneurysms can be repaired safely. It is also fortunate that more than one method to repair aneurysms is available. These include surgical, sometimes called "open" aneurysm repair, and endovascular, sometimes called "stent graft" aneurysm repair. The best method to repair each aneurysm depends upon several factors, including the location and shape of the aneurysm as well as the overall health of the patient.

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Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

Aortoiliac occlusive disease occurs when iliac arteries become narrowed or blocked. The aorta, our body's main artery, splits into branches at about the level of belly button. These branches are called the iliac arteries. The iliac arteries go through pelvis into legs, where they divide into many smaller arteries that run down to toes. Aortoiliac disease is considered a type of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) because it affects arteries, which are blood vessels that carry blood away from heart to limbs.

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Surgical Bypass

Surgical bypass treats narrowed arteries by directly creating a detour, or bypass, around a section of the artery that is blocked. Our arteries are normally smooth and unobstructed on the inside but they can become blocked through a process called atherosclerosis, which means hardening of the arteries.

A sticky substance called plaque can build up in the walls of arteries. Cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue make up the plaque. As more plaque builds up, our arteries can narrow and stiffen. Eventually, as the process progresses, blood vessels can no longer supply the oxygen demands of organs or muscles, and symptoms may develop.

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Endovascular Stent Graft

An endovascular stent graft is a tube composed of fabric supported by a metal mesh called a stent. It can be used for a variety of conditions involving the blood vessels, but most commonly is used to reinforce a weak spot in an artery called an aneurysm. Over time, blood pressure and other factors can cause this weak area to bulge like a balloon and it can eventually enlarge and ruptur.

The stent graft is designed to seal tightly with your artery above and below the aneurysm. The graft is stronger than the weakened artery and it allows our blood to pass through it without pushing on the bulge. Physicians typically use endovascular stent grafting to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but they also use it to treat thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and less commonly, aneurysms in other locations.

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Arm Artery Disease

Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen and nutrients from heart to the rest of the body. When an artery between chest and hand becomes blocked, arm or hand does not receive enough blood or oxygen. This condition called as arm artery disease.

Arm artery disease is an uncommon form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Most people with PAD have blocked leg arteries, called leg artery disease. Although arm artery disease can come on quickly, it usually starts slowly and gets worse over a long period of time. If it mild arm artery disease, may not notice any symptoms. As the disease advances, we may experience pain in the arm with activity and, if it becomes more severe, eventually may develop sores or gangrene in arm, in particular in the tips of fingers. Gangrene is tissue death and occurs when tissues in body do not receive enough oxygen and blood.

Like other types of PAD, arm artery disease can be caused by atherosclerosis, which means hardening of the arteries. Arteries are normally smooth and unobstructed on the inside, but as per age, a sticky substance called plaque can build up in the walls of your arteries. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue. In atherosclerosis, arteries narrow or become blocked as plaque builds up on artery walls.

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Claudication

Claudication is pain, tired or weak feeling that occurs in legs, usually during activity such as walking. The symptoms typically begin when start to exercise, and go away a short time after rest.

Arteries carry blood rich with oxygen and nutrients from heart to the rest of the body. When the arteries that carry blood to legs become narrowed or blocked, leg muscles may not receive enough of the blood and oxygen they need to support physical activity. Physicians call this lack of oxygen ischemia. Initially, legs may receive enough blood while at rest so that do not experience any discomfort without activity.

However, muscles need more oxygen when exercise, so if the arteries in legs are narrowed to the point that too little blood reaches the muscles, we may feel leg pain when walk. Claudication, which physicians also call intermittent claudication because it happens off and on, is a serious warning symptom because people who have it are also at increased risk for heart attack and stroke.

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Renovascular Conditions

Renovascular conditions affect the blood vessels of the kidneys, called the renal arteries and veins. When the blood flow is normal through kidneys, kidneys rid the body of wastes. The kidneys filters these wastes into urine, which collects in bladder, and from there the wastes exit body when urinate. Kidneys also help control blood pressure by sensing the blood pressure and secreting a hormone, called renin, into bloodstream. The amount of renin secreted by kidneys can help regulate the blood pressure if it is too high or too low. When the kidney blood vessels narrow or have a clot, kidney is less able to do its work.

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Endarterectomy

Endarterectomy is the general term for the surgical removal of plaque from an artery that has become narrowed or blocked. Our arteries are normally smooth and unobstructed on the inside but they can become blocked through a process called atherosclerosis, which means hardening of the arteries.

As per our age, a sticky substance called plaque can build up in the walls of arteries. Cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue make up the plaque. As more plaque builds up, demands of organs or muscles, and symptoms may develope.

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ThrombolyticTherapy

Thrombolytic therapy is a treatment used to break up dangerous clots inside blood vessels. To perform this treatment, physician injects clot-dissolving medications into a blood vessel. In some cases, the medications flow through bloodstream to the clot. In other cases, physician guides a long, thin tube, called a catheter, through the blood vessels to the area of the clot. Depending on the circumstances, the tip of the catheter may carry special attachments that break up clots. The catheter then delivers medications or mechanically breaks up the clot.

Thrombolytic therapy commonly is used to treat an ischemic stroke, which is another name for a clot in a blood vessel in brain. It can also be used to treat clots in:

  • A lung artery, called a pulmonary embolism
  • The deep veins of leg, called deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Heart, which may cause a heart attack
  • An artery elsewhere in the body, such as in an arm or leg artery
  • A bypass graft or dialysis catheter that has become blocked

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Amputation

It is a surgical method for various vascular and endovascular diseases. When performing an amputation, a surgeon removes a limb, or part of a limb, that is no longer useful to us and is causing great pain, or threatens health because of extensive infection. Most commonly, a surgeon must perform this procedure on toe, foot, leg, or arm. Physicians as well as patients consider amputation a last resort.

Although amputations may be required for other reasons, such as severe injury or the presence of a tumor, the most common reason may need an amputation is if we have peripheral arterial disease (PAD) due to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). In PAD, the blood vessels in our limbs become damaged because of hardening of the arteries or diabetes. Our body's cells depend on a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients delivered to them by blood.

If blood vessels are unable to supply blood and oxygen to fingers or toes, the cells and tissues die and are vulnerable to infection. If the blood supply cannot be improved sufficiently or if the tissue is beyond salvage, extensive tissue death may require amputation, especially if experiencing severe pain or infection.

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Fibromuscular Dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in human body. The areas of narrowing and bulging occur next to each other and can cause the artery to narrow so much that organs that receive blood from the artery are damaged. Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys.

Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (dissection), if left untreated. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, abdomen, arms and legs. While there isn′t a cure for fibromuscular dysplasia, it can be treated effectively.

Signs and symptoms
Most patients with craniocervical FMD are asymptomatic. No particular symptoms are pathognomonic for FMD. Any history compatible with a stroke in younger individuals may indicate underlying FMD. The family history should include information about relatives who have had vascular events at a young age.

In symptomatic patients, manifestations of FMD may include the following:
• Nonspecific problems, such as headache, light-headedness, vertigo, and tinnitus
• Neck pain or carotidynia
• History of transient or permanent neurologic deficits of the face or extremities (eg, weakness or numbness)
• Visual changes or speech difficulties
• Symptoms compatible with a sentinel bleed (eg, a sudden explosive headache followed later by neck stiffness): May indicate an aneurysm that may be associated with FMD
• Symptoms suggestive of noncraniocervical FMD, such as hypertension (renal involvement), abdominal pains or a history of ischemic bowel (mesenteric or visceral artery involvement), or intermittent leg claudication (extremity artery involvement)

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Carotid Stenting

Carotid artery stenting is a procedure in which vascular surgeon inserts a slender, metal-mesh tube, called a stent, which expands inside carotid artery to increase blood flow in areas blocked by plaque. Hardening of the arteries, also known as atherosclerosis, can cause a build-up of plaque.

In hardening of the arteries, plaque builds up in the walls of arteries as our age. Cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue make up the plaque. As more plaque accumulates, arteries can narrow and stiffen. Eventually, enough plaque may build up to reduce blood flow through arteries, or cause blood clots or pieces of plaque to break free and to block the arteries in the brain beyond the plaque.

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